Vincent C. Siew was vice-president of the Republic of China from 2008 to 2012. Since leaving office, he has continued to advise President Ma Ying-jeou on a variety of international, economic and policy issues. Siew began his civil service career at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1962, and transferred to the Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) in 1972. At the MOEA, he held senior posts in the 1980s and 1990s, including director-general of the Bureau of Foreign Trade, minister of the Council for Economic Planning and Development, as well as minister of Economic Affairs. The former vice-president successfully negotiated with the US for most-favored-nation status, and thanks in part to his efforts, Chinese Taipei became a member of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and gained observer status in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, later renamed the World Trade Organisation. In 1997, Siew was appointed premier and during his tenure, Chinese Taipei emerged unscathed from the 1997-1998 Asian financial crisis. He was chairman of the Chung Hua Institution for Economic Research, a top policy think-tank, and the Cross-Straits Common Market Foundation, an organization he founded that supports normalization of trade across the Taiwan Strait. Siew has a bachelor's degree in diplomacy and a master's degree in international law and diplomacy from National Chengchi University in Taipei. He was awarded an honorary doctorate from Ohio State University, and the Eisenhower Fellowship for short-term study in the US.